Arrow pointing at the dots over both i and j, known as tittle

Just a Tittle

Just a title: arrow pointing at the dots over both I and J, known as tittle.
Just a tittle

Just a Tittle Bit

For every jot and tittle in life, there’s an app! Tittle: I really like the sound of this word although I don’t remember the last time I used it. It’s fallen into an abyss where words go because they sound a tad dated. Perhaps the younger generation has never even heard it. You never know though; it sounds like it could be the name of an upcoming app and the word itself is slingshot back into modern usage.

The OED states the meaning of tittle, a singular noun as a tiny amount or part of something. Although there is another meaning of tittle! One I never knew until now. The tittle, or the superscript dot, is the distinguishing mark that appears above both lowercase i and j in writing and print. Yes, there’s a word for those small dots. Amazing!


Tittle, as a word, has its roots in Late Middle English where it originated from the Latin titulus: small stroke or accent. Tittle is rarely used in modern English and its first known use was recorded in the Christian Bible (Matthew 5:18).

Hold on! I thought the tittle was a diacritic.


The tittle is also referred to as a diacritic, but this is a broader term as diacritics can appear on other letters in the alphabet. This is true for many European languages where diacritics appear as accents, macrons and graves over both vowels and consonants like these guys here: ä, ë, İ, ė, á, â.

Dotted and Dotless

There are several languages that use both the dotted and dotless I in uppercase and lowercase. Modern Turkish uses both dotted (İ i) and dotless (I, ı) as well as Azerbaijani and the Tatar language.

In Irish, bilingual road signs show the dotless lowercase ı to distinguish it from the buailte overdot that appears over consonants: ġ, ċ. Nowadays, an h replaces the diacritic and is thus written as gh and ch.

In some of the Dene group of languages from the Northwest Territories in Canada, both dotted and dotless I are used to distinguish the differences between tone-marked vowels, like í and ì. And in the French speaking province of Quebec in Canada, there are road signs that show the uppercase I with a tittle rendering one such place, Longueuil as LONGUEUİL.

There’s got to be some brands out there that use dotless I in their designs, fonts and logos. If you come across any, please do leave a comment below.

The STAR Team

Speech bubbles containing names of languages

Guess that language

Speech bubbles containing names of languages, Guess that language

Guess that language!

Have you ever found yourself trying to read a piece of text to figure out what language it is?

I do this quite a lot when browsing online and when I come across unidentified words: those that aren’t English or Portuguese (the ones I know!). Or, if I’m travelling, I try to read some words in any given language despite not knowing how to pronounce them. It’s kind of fun, well, for someone who’s really interested in languages.

It’s always good to have something to base your educated guesses on; I’ve gathered some phrases from well-known languages to help you revise. You know, for testing yourself. This way, you’ll be mastering the art of guess that language!

Arabic نحن ننتمي إلى منظمة عريقة ذات تاريخ طويل مكلل بالنجاح. بدءا من نش أتها قبل ما يزيد على 011 عام كم نع محلي للمنتجات
Chinese 我们是这家历史悠久、业绩辉煌的公司的一员。自 100 多年以前当地的一家小型金属产品制造商到如今收入
Estonian Selle autoga saate kaasa tasuta juhi 16 järjestikuseks tunniks. Sõidate professionaalse juhiga, kes tunneb kohalikke…
Filipino Kasama sa espesyal na presyong ito ang libreng proteksiyon ng Personal na Seguro para sa Aksidente.
Greek Με αυτό το αυτοκίνητο παίρνετε δωρεάν σοφέρ για 16 συνεχόμενες ώρες Θα ταξιδέψετε με επαγγελματία οδηγό που γνωρίζει
Hebrew חירה באפשרות זו תזין את הכתובת הרשומה שלך. הכתובת שתוזן אוטומטית תחליף את כתובות החיוב והמשלוח שהזנת
Hungarian Ehhez az autóhoz 16 órányi folyamatos sofőrszolgálat is jár. Helyismerettel rendelkező, profi sofőrrel utazhat.
Icelandic Með þessum bíl færðu flýtiafgreiðslu við innritun, sem þýðir að þú getur farið fram fyrir röðina og þannig sparað tíma.
Indonesian Kita adalah bagian dari sebuah organisasi yang memiliki sejarah panjang dan sukses. Sejak awal berdiri lebih dari
Japanese ユーザー名が既に使用中です。パスワードの確認入力がパスワードと一致しません。ユーザーの追加
Korean 사용자 이름이 이미 사용되고 있습니다. 암호가 필요합니다. 최소한 하나의 시스템 계정이 필요합니다.
Latvian šo automašīnu jūs saņemsit ātrās registrēšanās pakalpojumu — jums nebūs jāstāv rindā un varēsit būt starp
Lithuanian Su šiuo automobiliu nemokamai galėsite naudotis vairuotojo paslaugomis. Keliausite su profesionaliu vairuotoju…
Malay Maklumat berkenaan topik seperti:etika, keselamatan, kerahsiaan, diskriminasi, budaya syarikat dan
Mongolian Ялангуяа GPХ цувралын илрүүлэгч төхөөрөмж олборлолтын БҮХ нөхцөлд бусад ЯМАР ч илрүүлэгчээс илүү гүнд алтыг олдог
Polish To oznacza szczere postępowanie, zgodne z przepisami prawa oraz zasadami CLARCOR Zgłaszaj wszelkie podejrzenia złamania zasad
Russian При заказе этого автомобиля Вы бесплатно получаете дополнительную подушку сиденья
Parts of Indonesia
Estratehiya at Teknolohiya – Pangmatagalang Kaunlaran
Ukrainian При замовленні цього автомобіля Ви безкоштовно отримуєте дитяче крісло (для дітей від 9 місяців до

The STAR Team

Irish Culture

Gaeltacht sees Irish in decline

Irish in decline in Gaeltacht

Irish in Decline, Gaeltacht

Irish is in swift decline and may become a secondary language in the Gaeltacht communities, a report states.

It was filed in a report on the 29th of May, that Irish will no longer be the primary language of any Gaeltacht community in ten years from now. Commissioned by the State agency Údarás na Gaeltachta and based on census figures from 2006 to 2011, the language has been declining faster than expected. And declining more rapidly than suggested in a similar report from 2007.


Confined to a mostly academic setting, those of classrooms … Irish is less spoken in social environments. The report which announces its findings by authors of the publications lacks any methods of preserving the language. This is now in dispute between Údarás na Gaeltachta and the authors. However, Údarás has agreed to file a second report for the recommendations on how to preserve Irish in the Gaeltacht communities.

The Figures

Despite all this, the research in the original report shows that of 155 electoral divisions within the Gaeltacht, only 21 are communities where Irish is spoken on a daily basis by 67% of its population. 67% is regarded as a tipping point for language survival among experts.

Rónán Ó Domhnaill, the Irish language commissioner has expressed his concerns over the declining use of Irish in the Gaeltacht. Ó Domhnaill commented, “currently, there is no requirement in the Languages Act, that the state should conduct its business through Irish, and that this needs to be looked at.”

The STAR Team

Source: RTÉ News

The Make or Do Quiz

Make or Do Quiz, Better English

Make or Do Quiz, Better English

Take the Make or Do Quiz

When it comes to learning English, the infinitive verbs to do and to make follow a set of rules similar to each other. Let’s explore the definitions of do and make, and their subsequent collocations… Then, take the quiz!


The rules are a little obscure and not so easy to follow. The verb do describes activities and are placed with words such as what, nothing, anything, thing, etc. People generally use do to talk about leisure activities, duties, tasks, jobs and so forth.


  • ‘What shall we do now?’ ‘You can do what you like. I’m going home!’
  • ‘He didn’t do anything. He just sat there.’
  • ‘You expect me to do everything around the house. Well, I’m fed up!’
  • ‘I did all my homework last night so tonight I’m going to do the housework.’
  • ‘I did a lot of research and I think I did a good job on that essay. I did my best anyway.’
  • ‘I intend to do lots of walking on holiday this year, and perhaps some bird-watching too.’


The use of the verb make describes when someone is constructing, creating or performing something.


  • ‘I made three suggestions and left it to him to make the final decision.’
  • ‘I’ve made all the arrangements for the trip and I’ve made a great effort to get it all right.’
  • ‘I’m afraid I’m going to have to make my excuses and leave.’
  • ‘I have to make three phone calls.’


Time to test your knowledge now. It’s not an easy task for an English language learner; it takes time, knowing your usage, learning more and knowing which verbs collocate with which nouns. Give it a try.

Possible Verb Sentence (imperative)
do make …the washing-up and the cleaning
do make …your homework now!
do make …an application for your driving licence.
do make …an impression.
do make …something worth being proud.
do make …a fortune, a mess or a profit.
do make …business (with somebody).
do make …a cake for your sister’s birthday, will you?
do make …an effort to be nice (to someone).
do make …amends for your bad behaviour.
do make …the right thing tonight and be polite to her.
do make Can you…the dinner this evening as I’ll be out until late?
do make …an announcement or a speech.

*Examples taken from the BBC, Learn English online programme.

The STAR Team

Introducing the new Search Console

New Google Search Console Announced

Introducing the new Google Search Console

Introducing the new Google Search Console

Google Search Console, Farewell Webmasters Tools

Google’s Webmasters Tools has been providing webmasters with useful features to help them make their websites more findable and useful for almost ten years.

But Google wants to rebrand and rename Webmasters Tools: Introducing the new Search Console!


Since change is always a good thing, well, most of the time, Google’s reason behind the rebranding is that webmasters aren’t the only people who use the app. Inclusion is the keyword! As Google has stated, “the traditional idea of ‘webmaster’ reflects only some of you.” There are all kinds of webmaster out there from hobbyists, small business owners, SEO experts, marketers, programmers, designers, app developers, and, of course, webmasters as well.

The one thing they all have in common, apart from using Webmasters Tools of course, is the desire to make all their work available online.

Google posted this update on their Webmaster Central Blog on Wednesday 20th of May. They’ll also be rebranding the new Search Console over the coming weeks. Make sure to bookmark it for future developments on all things Google!

The STAR Team


SURE Thing: Start-up Refunds for Entrepreneurs

SURE Tax relief for start-ups, Start-up refunds for entrepreneurs

SURE: Tax relief for start-ups

Start-up Refunds for Entrepreneurs, Ireland

Are you thinking of starting a new company? Then you could be due a tax refund under SURE: Start-up Refunds for Entrepreneurs.

SURE is a tax refund scheme, and is a joint initiative of the Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation and Revenue.

If you’re starting your own business, you may be entitled to an income tax refund of up to 41% of the capital funding that you invest in your company under SURE. Depending on the size of your investment, you may be entitled to a refund of PAYE income tax that you previously paid over six years prior to the year in which you invest.

General conditions for SURE; you must:

  • Establish a new company and engage in qualifying trading activity(ies)
  • Invest money in the new company by way of purchasing new shares
  • Have had mainly PAYE income in the previous four years
    • This would include a person currently in PAYE-type employment, an unemployed person, a person recently made redundant or a retired person
  • Take up full-time employment in the new company either as a director or an employee

You can also estimate your potential SURE refund using their Online Calculator*. Make best use of the online calculator by following the information outlined below:

  1. Details of the likely investment amount
  2. Details of your income and PAYE tax paid
    • This information is on your P60 or P21. If you’re investing an amount greater than one year of income, you’ll need your P60 / P21 for more than one year

*Terms and conditions will prompt upon click

Revenue: Irish Tax and Customs has more information on SURE

The STAR Team

Language Lovers Nominations 2015

Language Lovers Nominations 2015

We’ve been nominated in the Top Language Lovers 2015 Awards

Language Lovers Nominations 2015, STAR on Twitter

It’s time to vote for your favourite language lovers nominations of 2015.

The guys at Lexiophiles, powered by have nominated our Twitter account under the category of Language Twitter account: tweeters who share content about languages. We’re thrilled to be nominated this year but we need your help to make it to the voting phase of the awards. (Language Lovers Nominations)

Nominate your Favourite Language Lover!

We’ll share the link when it’s time to vote (26th May to 14th June) for your Favourite Language Lover of 2015!

About Lexiophiles’ Top 100 Awards

The awards are brought to you by Lexiophiles with their yearly Top Language Lovers.

It was first established in 2008 to award the 100 best blogs for languages, but the competition has grown a lot and there are now five categories:

  • Language Learning Blogs
  • Language Professional Blogs
  • Language Facebook Pages
  • Language Twitter accounts
  • Language YouTube channels

The STAR Team

Irish Exports Hit Record High

Cargo being exported over sea irish exports, Irish exports hit record high

Irish exports hit record high; increase in 10% since last year, reports Enterprise Ireland

According to Enterprise Ireland, exports by Irish-owned companies increased by 10% since last year; a record high value of €18.6 billion. Goods to the UK valued at €6.8 billion while exports to the USA and Canada totalled €2.3 billion in worth: that’s up 16%.

All exports to Latin America saw the biggest gain: up 42%, with sales of €224 million. Ten years, the value of export sales was €8.5 billion from companies Enterprise Ireland supports. Today, the agency reported exports stand at 51% of sales and are targeting export sales of €22 billion by the end of next year.

The software sector accounts for the biggest percentage increase in these exports.

Julie Sinnamon, chief executive of Enterprise Ireland, said that growth was recorded across all sectors as well and in all international markets.

“These results are reflected in the record jobs performance by Enterprise Ireland clients in 2014 where the agency’s clients recorded the highest net job gains in the history of the agency and further validate Enterprise Ireland’s investment in indigenous industry,” stated Julie.

The STAR Team

Smart Business Show, Supporting National Export Campaign

RDS building, National Export Campaign

The RDS in Dublin where the Smart Business Show took place.

Last week saw STAR support the National Export Campaign by taking part in the SMART Business Show in the RDS. Our team where present showcasing our translation services for exporters into as many as 70 languages. At the show we introduced our new translation plugin for WordPress Websites.

Before the show started, there were a number of presentations by Brian Corish, the head of digital at Vodafone Ireland; Dara Murphy TD, Minister for European Affairs and Christy Burke, Lord Mayor of Dublin.

Dara Murphy TD, National Export Campaign

Dara Murphy TD giving the opening speech to kick off the Smart Business Show in association with Vodafone Ireland

Lord Mayor of Dublin Christy Burke, National Export Campaign

Lord Mayor of Dublin Christy Burke with Damian Scattergood of STAR Translation. And Minister for European Affairs & Data Protection, Dara Murphy TD (left)

For our professional sales team it was a busy two days of customer focused engagement and, of course, a little fun  as well.

Damian, Bryan and Eoin at the company's stand for the event, National Export Campaign

Left to right: Damian, Bryan and Eoin at the company’s stand for the event at the RDS in Dublin

Smart Business Show Stands, National Export Campaign

An early morning start for us and many others at the Smart Business Show, The RDS, Dublin

Many thanks to Innov8 Office Interiors for the supply of coffee on that early morning start!

STAR Partner Profile: AboutFrance: The French Trade Solution

We met up with some of our partners and discuss how we can help exporters together. If you’re developing your business in France you could benefit from our partner About France. Charlotte Jehanno, owner of About France, advises companies in Ireland looking to expand their horizons and stretch their legs in France. We have been actively engaged with About France as a business partner for many years now.

About France provides hands on business solutions in:

  • Researching commercial partners
  • Sales outsourcing
  • Exhibiting at trade fairs
  • Managing events and clients’ visits
  • Translating websites and legal material
  • Communicating with the media

Considering exporting / importing to or from France? Call About France on +353 (0)1 442 9093

The STAR Team

Google Mobile-friendly Sites Rank Higher. Is your site ready?

Mobile-friendly sites ranked higher by Google

Mobile-friendly sites ranked higher by Google from 21st of April 2015

Mobile-Friendly Sites To Rank Higher

If you’re website is not mobile friendly, its web ranking will drop when Google’s new algorithm is implemented.

From the 21st of April, Google’s mobile-friendly test becomes a ranking factor in their mobile search engine.

Have you ever noticed the grey Mobile-friendly text beside the description of a website on a mobile device? Well that basically tells the user that the site is responsive: suitable for mobile use.

All mobile-friendly sites will rank higher in Google’s search engine for mobiles if they conform… Test your website using Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test. If you get the green light, then you’re OK.

If your site isn’t responsive or mobile-friendly (they’re pretty much the same thing), then talk to us today to have it designed for all devices. We not only translate websites and digital marketing material, but design websites for use on desktop, tablet and smart phone devices.

Stay ahead of the game with a clear, easy-to-navigate mobile-friendly website.

Talk to our team at the Smart Business Show this week…

Ask us about designing a mobile-friendly site for your business and translating it into any language.

The STAR Team